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Ammonia is a unique pungent gas that has been consumed enormously worldwide, according to the production of ammonia of more than 100 million tons per year


Ammonia is used in many industrial processes, and as a fertilizer and refrigerant.
Some chemical/physical properties of ammonia are:
  • At room temperature, ammonia is a colorless, highly irritating gas with a pungent, suffocating odor
  • In pure form, it is known as anhydrous ammonia and is hygroscopic (readily absorbs moisture)
  • Ammonia has alkaline properties and is corrosive
  • Ammonia gas dissolves easily in water to form ammonium hydroxide, a caustic solution and weak base
  • Ammonia gas is easily compressed and forms a clear liquid under pressure
  • Its usually shipped as a compressed liquid in steel containers
  • Ammonia is not highly flammable, but containers of ammonia may explode when exposed to high heat
Compared to hydrogen, the storage of ammonia is much easier.
Ammonia can be easily liquefied under 1 atm at −33 °C or under 10 atm at 20 °C, while hydrogen needs very low temperature (−253 °C) or high pressure (250 atm).
In addition, ammonia provides higher volumetric density than hydrogen.

Several firms are developing green ammonia, a route to ammonia in which hydrogen derived from water electrolysis powered by alternative energy replaces hydrocarbon-based hydrogen, making ammonia production virtually carbon dioxide–free.

But establishing an ammonia fuel industry won’t be easy.
By most estimates, green ammonia will cost 2 to 4 times as much to make as conventional ammonia.
And some of the technologies needed to harness the molecule, such as ammonia-burning engines, are still experimental.