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Arab gas pipeline

it is a trans-regional gas export pipeline in the Middle East, built to carry natural gas from Egypt to Jordan, Syria and Lebanon.

Arab gas pipeline

The Arab gas pipeline carries natural gas from Egypt into Jordan, Lebanon and Syria. The pipeline was built at a cost of approximately $1.2 billion. 

The AGP was commissioned in different phases. 
  • The 1st phase extends from Arish (Egypt) to Aqaba (Jordan). Its total length is 265 km, incl. a 15 km-long offshoresegment running under the Gulf of Aqaba. The 2nd section runs for 390 km from Aqaba to El Rehab (Jordan), 30 km from the Jordanian–Syrian border. 
  • The 3rd section is 30 km in length, extending from ElRehab to Jabber (Syria). 
  • The 4th section expands from the Jordan–Syrian border to Homs (Syria) andconstitutes a gas network in Syria.
The pipeline project was initiated within the framework of bilateral dialogues between Egypt and Jordanin 2001 to supply Jordan with natural gas through a pipeline from the northern Sinai town of El Arish to the Jordanian city of Aqaba.
The MoU later included Syria and Lebanon. Israel, Turkey and Iraq also signed deals to cooperate in this trans-regional pipeline project.

The terms of the Egypt–Jordan Agreement are confidential. In 2004 Egypt, Jordan, Syria and Lebanon agreed to connect the existing pipeline with Iraq’s gas grid to allow Iraq to export gas to Europe.
So, the pipeline is also speculated to be connected with Iraq’s gas grid to facilitate the export of Iraqi gas to the European market.

Egypt considers the AGP a remarkable model for a strategic and economic artery between Egypt, Jordanand Syria and between Africa, Asia and Europe in future phases.

However, the AGP has been the subject of attack several times since the start of the Arab revolution in early 2011 and, in recent years, gas pipeline attacks have become more frequent, affecting the AGP’s ability to deliver regular gas supplies. 

Egyptian gas exports were reduced dramatically in 2011 – initially due to sabotage (mostly to its feeder pipeline in Sinai), followed by natural gas shortages in Egypt which forced it to discontinue gas exports by the mid 2010s

Sections of the pipeline continued to operate in Jordan to facilitate domestic transport of gas.
The pipeline was reversed to flow gas from Jordan to Egypt from 2015 to 2018 (fed by imported LNG through Jordan's Aqaba LNG reception terminal). 

The recovery in Egyptian gas production has enabled gas to flow to Jordan through the link from 2018. 

In 2020 the pipeline also began distributing gas from Israel inside Jordan, while the underwater branch to Israel was reversed to allow gas from Israel to flow to Egypt.