Electrolyzers can range in size from small, appliance-size equipment that is well-suited for small-scale distributed hydrogen production to large-scale, central production facilities that could be tied directly to renewable or other non-greenhouse-gas-emitting forms of electricity production.
Hydrogen production via electrolysis may offer opportunities for synergy with variable power generation, which is characteristic of some renewable energy technologies. For example, though the cost of wind power has continued to drop, the inherent variability of wind is an impediment to the effective use of wind power.
Hydrogen fuel and electric power generation could be integrated at a wind farm, allowing flexibility to shift production to best match resource availability with system operational needs and market factors.
Also, in times of excess electricity production from wind farms, instead of curtailing the electricity as is commonly done, it is possible to use this excess electricity to produce hydrogen through electrolysis.
Electrolysers are differentiated by the electrolyte materials and the temperature at which they are operated:
- low-temperature electrolysis (LTE), including
- alkaline electrolysis (AE),
- proton exchange membrane (PEM) electrolysis
- and anion exchange membrane (AEM) electrolysis (also known as alkaline PEM),
- and high-temperature electrolysis (HTE)
The efficiency of electrolysis is determined by the amount of electricity used to produce an amount of hydrogen. Depending on the method used, the efficiency of water electrolyser is currently in the region of 60 to 80 % (based on the calorific value).
While electrolys are already in operations, research continues to further improve them. Research priorities currently include increasing the efficiency of the electrolyser system, its operating life, power density, stack size, reducing costs, introducing pressurised systems to avoid the need for subsequent compression of the H2 produced, developing flexible systems adapted to intermittent and fluctuating power supply.