As a result of old and damaged equipment, human error, and bad luck, extracting oil from the ground and moving it to refineries and beyond occasionally releases oil into the environment.
Oil spills cause short-term as well as long-term damage to the environment (soil, water, aquatic flora, fauna, and animals)
Oil spill can include the release of oil from underwater pipelines, offshore platforms, wells or drilling rigs that harm the environment and marine life.
The term is mostly applied to marine oil spills caused by releasing oil into coastal or ocean waters.
It gets penetrated into the fur of mammals and plumage of the birds which reduces their ability to insulate and make them vulnerable to the fluctuations of temperature and less buoyant in water.
Oil spills have adverse consequences to the society socially, economically and environmentally.
It can contaminate the supplies of drinking water and affect the society economically by affecting the tourism and industries extracting marine resources.
Cleaning and recovering the environment from an oil spill is very hard and depends on many factors like the temperature of water, type of oil spilled and types of beaches and shorelines involved.
The largest accidental oil spill in history began in the Gulf of Mexico on April 20, 2010, after a surge of natural gas blasted through a cement well cap that had recently been installed to seal a well drilled by the Deepwater Horizon oil platform.
The gas traveled up the rig’s riser to the platform, where it ignited, killing 11 workers and injuring 17.
Before the well was capped several months later on September 17, some 134 million gallons of oil were released, and about 2 100 km of the U.S. Gulf Coast from Texas to Florida were coated with oil.
In the lawsuits that followed, the oil company BP paid $65 billion in compensation to people who relied on the gulf for their livelihoods.