1972 - graduated from the Moscow State Teacher’s University, History Department.
1974-1991 - Scientific Fellow of the Lenin and Marx Institute of the KPSS.
1992-2001 - Director of the Russian Independent Institute for Social and National Problems.
2001-2005 - Director of the Institute of Complex Social Studies of the Russian Academy of Sciences.
Since 2003 - Research Director of the All-Russian Public Opinion Research Center (VCIOM).